The boards or commissions are of various types: 1. The Administrative Board 2. Advisory Board 3. Board Tied into Hierarchy 4. The Regulatory Commission 5. Bi-Partisan Boards.
Type # 1. The Administrative Board:
Where the board is the head of the department, it is known as administrative board, for example, the Railway Board; the Central Board of Revenue.
Type # 2. Advisory Board:
It is often attached to the head of the department for giving him advice on general or specific matters. The advice is not binding on the head. The advisory boards generally consist of technical hands or experts. They stand outside the hierarchical organization of the department and do not share the responsibility for doing the work of the department or for formulation of policy.
These boards may also be called committees. In India there are Central Advisory Board of Education, Railway Advisory Board, University Grants Commission, Public Service Commission, etc.
Type # 3. Board Tied into Hierarchy:
Sometimes, a board or commission is found tied in the hierarchy or an intermediate level. It is not empowered to run the department, but performs quasi-legislative and quasi-judicial functions with regard to the specific field entrusted to it; for example, the Haryana Board of School Education, the State Electricity Board.
The School Board is organically connected with the Education department but is given the charge of laying down syllabi and courses for the school classes and conducting the Higher Secondary Examination. The Electricity Board is in charge of the distribution of electricity.
Type # 4. The Regulatory Commission:
In the U.S.A., some commissions have been created to regulate and control private persons and property in the interest of general well-being. These commissions have quasi-legislative and quasi-judicial functions.
Type # 5. Bi-Partisan Boards:
Sometimes boards are created consisting of representatives of the leading parties in order to eliminate party politics.