In this article we will discuss about the formation of Swaraj Party in India.
Some national leaders including Subhash Chandra Bose, C R. Das, Moti Lal Nehru and others did not feel happy about the way in which movement was withdrawn by Gandhiji. It was characterised as national calamity by some national leaders.
They founded a separate party called Swaraj Party, which preached either mending of the Councils set up by the Act or to end these. In their conference held in March 1923, they also enacted their own constitution and contested elections held in that year with the clear objective of wrecking the Councils from within.
They got absolute majority in some provinces, whereas in others their role was quite crucial. In February 1928 the Swarajists got a resolution passed in the Central Assembly by which they demanded that in India full responsible government should be immediately set up.
One can very well imagine the strains and stresses under which a system will be, when a very powerful and effective section of legislative body, having public support is determined to wreck that very system from within. Really it was a difficult and gigantic task for those who wanted to maintain that. As a result of their efforts Muddiman (Reform’s Enquiry Committee) was set up in 1924.
The Committee had official majority, but its report was not unanimous. When the report was placed before Central Assembly for its consideration the Swarajists embarrassed the government by getting a resolution passed with thumping majority that constitutional scheme as provided in the committee report was unworkable.
As the time, however, passed it was found that the policy of obstruction and wrecking the Assembly from within was not paying dividends in the words of S.C. Bose, “From the middle of 1925 onwards, there was gradual watering down of the original Swarajists policy of unlimited opposition.”
By the end of 1926 the wreckers had lost much of their fire. The number of those even among the party bosses who advocated policy of uniform and continuous and consistent obstruction against the government was very less.
The change in attitude of Swarajist party gave lease of life to the system though not much and it appeared that for some time the system might be given some trial. At the same time some Indians also got an opportunity to expose the infirmities of British government and their autocratic attitude while governing and dealing with the people of India.