Here is an essay on the ‘Commissions in India’ for class 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on the ‘Commissions in India’ especially written for school and college students.
Essay # 1. Constitutional Commissions:
Our Constitution makes a mention of some of the commissions and they have got to be appointed. Such commissions are the Finance Commission, the Union Public Service Commission, the Election Commission, the Backward Classes Commission, and the Official Language Commission. Because of the constitutional sanctity attached to these commissions, they enjoy the greatest amount of autonomy.
They are appointed by the President of India and do not come under the control of any other executive authority. The members of these commissions are appointed by the President but they cannot be removed from office except by a special procedure. Their salaries are a charge on the Consolidated Fund of India and they are not alterable to their disadvantage during the term of their office.
a. The Finance Commission:
Article 280 of the Indian Constitution provides for the constitution of the Finance Commission at an interval of five years or earlier if the President of India considers necessary. The Commission shall consist of a Chairman and four other members to be appointed by the President.
Article 281 makes it imperative for the President to “cause every recommendation made by the Finance Commission under the provisions of this Constitution together with an explanatory memorandum as to the action taken thereon to be laid before each House of Parliament.”
The functions of the Commission are:
(i) The distribution between the Union and the States of the net proceeds of taxes which are to be, or may be, divided between them and the allocation between the States of the respective shares of such proceeds;
(ii) The principles which should govern the grants-in-aid of the revenues of the states out of the Consolidated Fund of India;
(iii) Any other matter referred to the President in the interests of sound finance.
The Finance Commissions have been playing prominent role in stabilizing economy of the states. For instance the ninth Finance Commission made recommendations relating to the devolution of taxes and duties to the states grants-in-aid under article 275 of the Constitution financing of relief expenditure and debt relief to the states covering the 5 year period which originally had to commence on April 1, 1990.
It also recommended that out of net distributable proceeds, a sum equal to 1.437 per cent should be deemed to represent the share of the Union Territories in Income Tax and 85 per cent of the divisible pool of income tax should be assigned to the states. Another important recommendation of the Commission pertained to earmarking of 45 per cent of the net proceeds of shareable Union excise duties to the states.
Further it suggested that the existing arrangements for financing relief-expenditure should be replaced by a new one under which the states should have greater autonomy and accountability.
It also proposed that the Government of India shall contribute to the calamity relief fund to the extent of 75 per cent in the form of non plan grant. These recommendations along with explanatory memorandum were placed by the then Finance Minister before Lok Sabha on March 12, 1990. Evidently, its role is pivotal.
b. Public Service Commissions:
Articles 315—323 of the Indian Constitution provide for a Public Service Commission for the Union and a Public Service Commission for each State. The members of the Union Public Service Commission are appointed by the President of India and that of the Public Service Commission’s of various States by the Governors.
c. The Election Commission:
Article 324 of the Indian Constitution provides for the constitution of an Election Commission with a Chief Election Commissioner as its Chairman.
The functions of the Commission are “superintendence, direction and control of the preparation of the electoral rolls for, and the conduct of, all elections to Parliament and to the Legislature of every State and of elections to the offices of President and Vice-President, including the appointment of election tribunals for the decision of doubts and disputes arising out of or in connection with elections to Parliament and to the Legislatures of States.”
d. The Backward Classes Commission:
Article 340 of the Constitution provides that the President may appoint a Backward Class Commission to “investigate the conditions of socially and educationally backward classes within the territory of India and the difficulties under which they labour and to make recommendations as to the steps that should be taken by the Union or any State to remove such difficulties and to improve their condition and as to the grants that should be made for the purpose by the Union or any State and the conditions subject to which such grants should be made.” the report of the Commission is laid before each House of the Parliament.
e. The Official Language Commission:
Article 344 of the Indian Constitution provides for the appointment of an Official Language Commission, at the expiration of five years from the commencement of the Constitution and thereafter at the expiration of ten years from such commencement.
The Commission recommends the President as to:
(i) The progressive use of the Hindi language for the official purposes of the Union;
(ii) Restrictions on the use of the English language for all or any of the official purposes of the Union;
(iii) The language to be used for all or any of the purposes in the Supreme and High Courts, etc.;
(iv) The form of numerals to be used for any one or more specified purposes of the Union;
(v) Any other matter referred to the Commission by the President as regards the official language of the Union and the language for communication between the Union and a State or between one State and another and their use.
The Commission consists of a Chairman and such other members representing the different languages as the President may appoint.
From a brief study of the functions of the Commission given above, it is clear that, unlike the independent regulatory commissions of the U.S.A., they do not exclude the President of India to the degree to which the President of America is excluded.
They submit their reports to the Parliament through the President of India and this helps us to have an integrated administrative set-up. Besides the members cannot be removed from office except by a special procedure thus ensuring independence of the members.
A Telecom Regulatory Authority has been recently set up to regulate the telecom services to be provided by the private sector. The Vajpayee government introduced a Bill in the Winter Session (1998) of the Parliament to set up an Insurance Regulatory Authority consequent to the entry of foreigner in the field of insurance business.
The Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) Act was passed in late 1999 and the IRDA was established with effect from 19th April 2000. The Authority was empowered to make a code of conduct applicable to all surveyors and assessors.
Essay # 2. Statutory Commissions:
The second category of commissions and boards is that which are set up by the Acts of the Parliament. Examples of such bodies are the University Grants Commission, the Atomic Energy Commission, the Railway Board, the Oil and Natural Gas Commission, the Flood Control Board and various Public Corporations.
The statutory boards or commissions function under the general administrative control of one or the other Ministries of the Government of India but enjoy autonomy in their own administrative work, the departmental procedures are not applied by them in conduct of their work except when they voluntarily opt for them. Such boards and commissions exist in the state governments also.
Essay # 3. Commissions Set Up by Executive Orders:
There are boards and commissions which are set up by an order of the Executive. Examples of such bodies are, the Handicrafts Board, the Handloom Board, the Central Social Welfare Board, the Central Water and Power Commission, etc.
Such boards and commissions enjoy much less autonomy than the boards and commissions at (a) and (b) above. They are generally attached to the Minister who has the power to regulate their conduct of business and even abolish them altogether.