Here is a compilation of essays on the ‘Organisation and Method’ for class 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on the ‘Organisation and Method’ especially written for school and college students.
Essay on Organisation and Method
- Essay on the Meaning of Organisation and Method
- Essay on the Nature of Organisation and Method
- Essay on the Need of Organisation and Method
- Essay on the Evolution of Organisation and Method
- Essay on the Techniques of Organisation and Method
- Essay on the Functions of Organisation and Method
- Essay on the Advantages of Organisation and Method
- Essay on the Disadvantages of Organisation and Method
- Essay on the Qualities of Organisation and Method
- Essay on the Location of Organisation and Method Agency
- Essay on the Staffing of Organisation and Method Units
Essay # 1. Meaning of Organisation and Method:
The term O and M is used in two senses. In the broader sense, it means organisation and management. As such, it includes the study of the entire process of management, viz., planning, organizing, coordinating, motivating, directing, and controlling. L.D.
White defined “O & M as the improvement of all aspects of transacting business with special emphasis upon procedures and relationship”. In American phraseology, O & M is used in this sense.
In the restricted sense, it means Organisation and Methods. In this sense, it deals with the organisation of public bodies and their office procedures in order to effect efficiency and improvement in both. The efficiency in the context of O and M work signifies elimination of duplication, waste and delay by reshaping the organization and by simplification and acceleration of procedures.
In the words of Milward, “the usual functions of O and M are the examination of the structure of the organization under review and the studying of administrative and clerical methods, office mechanization and equipment, office layout and working conditions.” In UK and India, the preceding meaning is attributed to O and M.
No doubt one of the most important tasks of O and M work is to conduct reviews of an organisation for streamlining it. However, O and M is concerned only with the improvement of the internal structure of the unit concerned.
Traditionally reorganization of the structure at a higher level does not fall within the purview of the O and M unit. Such work is entrusted to high-powered bodies, viz., Government Organization Committee in U.K., the Hoover Commission in the U.S.A. and one-man Ayyangar Committee in India.
M.P. Sharma writes, “O & M work means reviewing the internal organisation and procedures of any administrative agency with a view to suggest improvements so as to ensure greater efficiency in its working.”
In the words of S.B. Bopat, the founder of O & M in India, “In simple terms it means paying intelligent and critical attention not only to what is done but also to how it is done and at what cost, in what time, labour and money, paying attention to the design of the machine and its working processes and not merely to its end product” ‘O’ analyses organisation and ‘M’ analyses techniques.
The aim is to improve the efficiency of an administrative unit for which restructuring of the unit may be called for but more important is the review of its methods and techniques. O & M is an efficiency and cost conscious study.
Regarding ‘Methods’, the ‘O and M’ units deal with the review of procedures and systems of transacting work in order to improve them. In this limited sense, O and M falls in the category of techniques like work study, operations research and Automation aiming at improvement of administration.
Such a narrow interpretation of the term ‘O and M’ is not justified. The term is often used for ‘management improvement’. As such, it ceases to be a mere technique and becomes a function for improving administration.
In the words of Milward, “It exists not only as a management tool—as an agent of top management—but also as service for managers, auditors, or others who use it because they have not themselves the time or the necessary expertise.” Professor Appleby while recommending O and M unit for the Government of India clearly stated its meaning in broader sense.
He said, “I recommend that the Government of India give consideration to the establishment of a Central Office charged with responsibility for giving both extensive and intensive leadership in respect to structure, management and procedures. At one level of highly technical and scientific sort, it would give attention to work measurement, work flow, office management, filing systems, space arrangements and the like; at another level, it would be charged with general governmental structural studies and proposals.”
Essay # 2. Nature of Organisation and Method:
(a) O and M is not a substitute for all-round management. O and M unit alone is not responsible for effecting improvement in administration. Its work is only a part of the entire governmental effort at improvement.
Prof Appleby rightly opined, “Efficiency specialists have an important place in government but no efficiency engineer will ever solve the principal problems of government. Other specialists can make important contributions to the general improvement of government but those specialists will be social scientists and efficiency engineers. The principal problems of government are to be solved relatively and progressively, by the combined efforts of scholars, specialists, administrators, politicians and the public.”
(b) The O and M functions should be construed as a service to governmental ministries and offices and not as an imposition from above. According to a report, O and M is a service function.
As such “its duty is to provide better facts to secretaries for decision-making on organisational and administrative issues. Whenever the secretaries feel the need for more adequate and objective facts, they can call upon the O and M staff, internal or external, to make available trained personnel for analysis…It should be the endeavor of the O and M group to increase its ability, to provide the service that it may be called upon to perform.”
(c) The O and M units have to play advisory role. They have to play staff and not line agency. As such, it strives to establish a relationship with departmental heads so that they achieve their purposes. In no case, it is to force an issue or impose an improvement on a department against its will.
(d) The O and M work should be considered as a work improvement study and not a fault finding mission. The O and M man should therefore be a friend and an ally always prepared to help solving the problems and not a critic or a fault finder. A successful O and M man always wins the confidence of operating head.
(e) O and M function should neither seem too technical nor too mysterious beyond the comprehension of a layman. O and M function is to be taken for a common human endeavor to discern better ways of doing things. O and M activity is in feet, “organised common sense”. Since common sense is generally uncommon, efficiency expert will come in the picture to organize it.
Essay # 3. Need of Organisation and Method:
O & M seeks to improve the efficiency of an organization. For this purpose it studies its structure and functioning. Its objective is to get the best organisation and the best methods of work by reducing cost.
It employs scientific techniques to simplifying processes and work to eliminate all unnecessary work and avoidable delay. The activities of the government keep on constantly expanding and changing with changes in the economic and social structure.
The line agencies are all the time engaged in performing day-to-day activities relating to administration. They do not have the time nor expertise to study the new arising problems and suggest methods and techniques to get these problems solved.
Therefore, there is always a need for a separate entity like the O & M to suggest better methods and techniques to stimulate the various functionaries and increase their work efficiency.
Essay # 4. Evolution of Organisation and Method:
The origin of O and M technique may be traced back to the 18th century. It had its beginnings mainly in the field of industry and business so as to ensure greater production and profit. They entered the field of governmental administration much later in the closing decade of the 19th century.
The first protagonists of the technique were the camera lists—a group of economists and administrators mainly from Germany and Austria, who flourished during the 1700s. The most distinguished scholar among the group was George Zincke. His famous work ‘Camera list Theory’ is a fine and voluminous treatise on the principles and procedures of political economy, fiscal science and public administration.
The word ‘Camera lists’ means those who possess fundamental and special knowledge about all or some particular part of those things which are necessary in order that they may assist the state in maintaining good management.
For a long time O and M work remained confined to the field of industry and business while governmental administration used to be run according to certain traditional notions and common sense. The change in this respect was initiated by the scientific management movement inspired by Taylor and others in the beginning of the twentieth century.
Taylor believed the elements of scientific management to be three—study every step in a particular process; select and train employees by the best approved scientific methods; and develop an intimate, friendly cooperation between management and men.
The best known technique of scientific management is Time and Motion study. The scientific management movement was a revolutionary step in the field of industrial production.
The increasing entry of the government into business and the example of the comparatively greater efficiency of private business and industry along with the failure of the government administration to improve the administrative system induced the government to import the concept of O and M into the administrative system in the second decade of the twentieth century.
In the United Kingdom O and M was introduced after the First World War while in the U.S.A. the Federal Government set up a Bureau of Efficiency in 1913 for doing O and M work. In India the Central Government set up O and M division in 1954 consequent to the recommendations of A.D. Gorwala and Paul H. Appleby.
Essay # 5. Techniques of Organization and Method:
A number of analytical techniques have been devised by O and M technologists to simplify procedures, measure work performance and render assistance to management in various other ways.
They are as follows:
Survey is the most important technique by which O and M analyst discharges his basic responsibilities for improving organisation, procedures and methods. According to Seckler Hudson, “A Management survey is a systematic examination and analysis of one or more related organisations, functions and or procedures. It is initiated for the purpose of identifying problems, determining their causes and developing solutions.”
Management surveys are of the varied types:
(a) Reconnaissance Survey:
It is a preliminary survey and helps in fixing the targets and scope of study.
(b) Overall Survey:
It comprises ‘a complete analysis of policies, organisation structures, controls, staffing procedures and physical facilities and arrangements.’
(c) Organisation Survey:
It is concerned with organisational problems like levels of authority, span of control, division of functions.
(d) Functional Survey:
It means an examination of a single function like stores, accounts, personnel and purchasing;
(e) Procedural Survey:
It means an analysis of procedures, systems and methods.
(f) Performance Audit:
It means an appraisal of the manner in which work in an organisation is being performed.
(g) Follow-Up Survey:
It is undertaken when management decides to implement the recommendations of the survey report. It is aimed at seeing whether the changes being introduced are yielding the desired or pre-determined effect. On the basis of the findings of the follow-up survey, the O and M analyst can commence feed-back activities to make modifications in the reforms plan in the light of experience thus gained.
(h) Attitude Survey:
Through Attitude surveys, the sampling techniques and behavioral research have enabled the administrative analyst to survey the perceptions, values, attitudes and motivation in public administration. The statistical techniques of sampling, content analysis, psychological and psycho-analytical inventions are put to use for the purpose.
Such surveys are instrumental in determining the suitability of personnel policies, the appropriateness of organisational arrangements, the effectiveness of supervision and the requisites for better performance.
Management Inspection constitutes an important function of an O and M unit. In certain countries like U.K., inspection and O and M functions are combined in same hands. For example, in the London County Council, both are concentrated in the same hands and O and M officer of the Council is also an Inspecting Officer.
O and M officers use this technique as a staffing function. In other words, it helps the operating heads to find out where they have erred and how best they can improve upon their past performance. Through periodical inspections, undertaken in collaboration with the operating heads, the O and M analyst can assist in work performance and enforcing work standards.
However, he should not strive to usurp the authority of the administrators. In certain State Governments of India, Inspection and O and M work have been combined.
There are two types of Inspections—internal and external—carried out by the O and M Division of Government of India. Internal Inspections are carried out in the Department itself whereas External Inspections are conducted by the Deputy Director, O and M Division.
(iii) Forms Control:
By controlling the forms, O and M persons can help management in improving internal communications and simplifying procedures. The O and M Division in the British Treasury has laid down useful guideline, for evolving a design for forms and O and M analysts undertake periodical revision of the forms in different Universities and Departments.
The forms play a vital role for the effective management of an agency. They furnish information for formulating policy, controlling and improving information’s and evaluating performance. They serve as guides to movement of materials, the performance of services, the authorization for expenditures and the payment of money. They constitute a basis of clerical and executive actions.
Forms have been defined as ‘printed or typed documents with blank spaces for the insertion of information’. According to another authority, a form signifies “a piece of paper or card on which entries are to be made bearing pointed or otherwise marked headings, captions or descriptive matter intended to define entries.”
Broadly speaking, forms comprise all pieces of paper designed to facilitate the work of an organisation. They are used to procure, convey or record information necessary to its operations.
In order to fulfill its functions adequately, a Forms Control programme should be devised with the following broad objectives:
(i) Elimination of needless forms;
(ii) Improvement in the design of needed forms;
(iii) Economy of the production, distribution and use of forms;
(iv) Analysis of forms in their relationship to procedure and method.
(iv) File Operations:
Filing system means methods of arranging records in systematic sequence. Such systems are necessary for the easy location of any particular record in a file. Files enable the ready location of the records. In fact, proper working of a department depends upon the effectiveness of its filing system.
The speed and efficiency of day-to-day operations depend on the management of files. Inadequate filing hampers decision making and hinders operations.
The problems involved in file operations are:
Classification, Initial Training, Issuing and Controlling, Retention and Disposal which may be studied by O and M personnel.
(v) Work Simplification:
Work simplification method means tackling the procedural problems of large organisation by making first line supervisors skillful enough to analyze and improve the procedures. In fact it is a blend of different techniques, viz., Work Distribution Chart and Process Chart.
The work distribution chart presents clearly all the activities in a work unit doing clerical tasks and the contribution of each employee to those activities. The major activities are enumerated on the side of the chart, the names of the employees are individually mentioned across the top and the tasks and time spent on each task are filled in the boxes.
The Process Chart furnishes a detailed record of the successive steps in a particular procedure of task. Symbols are used to represent the sequence of tasks. For instance, a wide circle (O) indicates the operation, a smaller circle (O) represents transportation, a triangle (A) represents shortage, a small box (□) represents inspection.
A thin line is used to connect each symbol. Other symbols also can be used to signify the different steps in a work process. However, these symbols should represent the same thing in all governmental organizations and all the officers and the staff in the organization should clearly understand them.
A Process Chart should answer six questions clearly, viz.:
(i) What is being done?
(ii) Why is this step necessary?
(iii) Where should this step be done?
(iv) When should this step be done?
(v) Who should do this step?
(vi) How should this step be done? A chart answering these questions effectively is an effective instrument of efficiency as it encourages self-inquiry and a desire to see whether the procedures can be simplified.
(vi) Work Measurement:
It is a method which sets up standards between work produced by an operating unit and the manpower used in the process. According to a study team it means “the application of techniques designed to accomplish the work content of a specific task by determining the time required for carrying it out at a defined standard of performance by a qualified worker.”
However, it requires two conditions, viz., the precise definition of the work operation to be measured and to record the number of man-hours spent for performing the defined work operation.
Work measurement is a sound technique of improving work method. Through it, management measures the volume of work and establishes equitable relationship between work output and manpower. Such a technique can easily be applied to mechanical and clerical activities which are of a repetitive type.
It can be fruitfully used for other administrative activities as well. This technique can, however, be applied if exact data of work-load and man-hours are maintained and reported. With the availability of these data, it is easier to calculate a work performance rate per unit of man-power used.
The division of the number of papers processed in a clerical unit by the number of man-hours expanded, one can discover the number of cases processed per each man-hour of work. Thus production rate for every given operation is known.
Three main methods of measuring the work unit are specified.
(a) Trial and error method;
(b) Statistical method;
(c) Time study.
(a) Trial and Error Method:
This is the oldest method. Though more exact methods have been discovered, yet this ancient method is not yet obsolete. It is being increasingly felt that the combined judgment of supervisors, operators, and analysts based on experience and continuous observation is more accurate than the detached scientific analysis.
However, there is no denying the fact that a standard fixed on the basis of a rough judgment is likely to cause misgivings between the employees and supervisors as subjective element plays a predominant part in such a case.
(b) Statistical Method:
This method is termed as Work or Activity sampling as well since a sample of the work is taken according to standard statistical methods and thereafter the sampled work or activity is observed to see as to how the total work effort is distributed among different work activities and what is proportion of non-productive effort to the productive.
With the applicability of scientific techniques of sampling and analysis, more reliable standards of work measurement can be obtained. Hence this method is in vogue for office work measurement. The system is, however, costly and beyond the comprehension of workers.
Moreover, statistical analysis alone may not yield correct results. It is, therefore, advisable to combine this method with the concerted judgment of the supervisors and intelligence of the cooperative workers.
(c) Time Study (Stop-Watch Method):
This method is applicable to repetitive and mechanical activities involving large production operations. The total work activity is measured by stop-watch. After the collection of a large amount of data, an average of the man-hour of activity is taken. Thus, the standard of measurement of that activity is known.
Which of these techniques is more useful, is immaterial. Work Measurement is undoubtedly an important tool of management.
Firstly, it helps management to adjust work-load among different operating units and workers within the units and offices.
Secondly, it helps in estimating personnel needs, and thus is helpful in budgeting.
Thirdly, it lays the foundation of work simplification and supplies useful data for preparing long-term forecasts.
The Staff Inspection Unit in the Ministry of Finance has successfully utilized the tools of work measurement and work simplification in the study of problems like high cost personnel being used for ordinary jobs, papers being passed through a large number of stages, the large number of steps taken to reach decision in comparison with the needs of the situation, too many statistical reports being compiled where fewer ones would meet the objective, too much drafting and typing being done for processes which are so repetitive that a suitable standard form would meet the requirements, and structural arrangements not economical with the objectives and load carried by the units under study.
It means the use of mechanical processes in office and paper work. Mechanization is being put to use in accounting, filing, tabulating, punching, sorting, stamping and varied types of computation work. Mechanization of the routine and repetitive work is economical both from money and man-power point of view. It also eliminates possibilities of human error in computation and such other work.
The International Business Machine (I.B.M.) has developed electronic data processing machines and electronic computers which are put at the disposal of private as well as public agencies on annual rental basis.
These machines can do all the office work except arriving at decision on discretionary matters. If initial decision is given by the authority concerned, a computer can do the rest. It can even inspect the results and make a choice, write an answer and check its accuracy.
First, it has saved money and labour in the office work. Second, it has helped management to introduce effective supervision and co-ordination in work. Third, it has caused the elimination of monotony and increase of productivity.
It may lead to widespread unemployment. In countries like India where unemployment is already rampant, its introduction may further worsen the situation. No doubt, in developing democracies, its introduction will pose a big problem till alternatives for the unemployed are provided.
Hence it is suggested that its introduction may not be conceived in isolation. It shall be part and parcel of total economic plan of the country and should be introduced by stages.
Essay # 6. Functions of Organisation and Method:
The O and M office stands for assisting line officials for effecting improvement in the management.
Following are its main functions:
O and M office (central) stands for developing and considering new ideas for administrative systems.
Such ideas relate to organizing, staffing, budgeting, accounting, delegation, co-ordination, supervision, etc.; use of techniques like work management, work simplification, statistical method and quality control and the improvement of office management by making use of office machines, sound record management, better layout, good system of standards, measurement and cost control.
The Central Office is concerned with the carrying out of investigations necessitating a broader and more specialized knowledge than can be provided locally. Through such investigations, procedures and methods of the various administrative agencies are thoroughly analyzed.
O and M central imparts training to O and M men. Such a qualified well-trained staff feeds the O and M units. Besides, training helps in promoting interest in O and M programmes. It tones up the administrative organisation.
It serves as a clearing house of information regarding the O and M work transacted at all levels of government. It collects relevant information, builds up a library and makes available information to those who require it.
It publishes guides, manuals, research material, hand books, bulletins, periodicals, and literature concerning both the theory and practice of O and M.
In order to prevent overlapping, avoid conflicts and remove contradictions, O and M central plays the role of a coordinator. It stimulates interest in the programme and assists line officials in planning and implementing their O and M efforts.
The functions of a central O and M unit can be summed up as comprehensive reviews of departments; research in O and M techniques; training of O and M officials; co-ordination; investigating and helping solve particular problems; analyzing organisation methods and procedures; publishing guide-lines for the supervisors and managers; and serving as reservoir of information regarding O and M work.
E. D. Melrose has very well summed up the role of O and M in these words, “…the O and M man is to get the best organisation and the best method and O and M is the technique which obtains a desired and necessary end with the minimum of outlay and effort.”
It may again be emphasized that the role of O and M units is essentially advisory. It is a staff function. It is to be seen as a service to ministries/departments/offices. It is primarily a service rendering service that it may be called upon to perform.
If a particular department avoids taking its advice or does not abide by it, the O & M unit is not to force the issue. Further, O and M is not a substitute for all-round management improvement. Its work is but a part of the entire government effort at improvement. The problems of Government are to be solved by the combined efforts of specialists, administrators, politicians and the public.
Essay # 7. Advantages of Organisation and Method:
The main advantages of O and M are the following:
(a) A Device to Improve Administration:
O and M provides machinery to improve the administration, as it critically reviews the organisation of its various branches and methods of work followed therein. Such a review is of dire necessity even in the best organised offices.
(b) Structure of Government Office and its Procedure made Adaptable:
Since it makes a provision for a machinery to review government organisation and method, it keeps the structure of government office and procedure adopted by it up-to-date. Government organisation can hardly remain static for a long time. It must adjust itself with the changing times for the sake of its own survival. Such adjustments are often piecemeal.
They are responsible for unplanned development both of the organisation and the methods of work. It necessitates a complete overhaul. However, there is a great time lag between a change in the outward circumstances and a corresponding planned change in the government organisation and methods. Though O and M may not completely eliminate this time lag, yet it can help in overcoming it to some extent.
However, the number of people employed for O and M work is manifold, even complete elimination of time lag is possible. With the elimination or at least reduction of time lag, and the adaptability of governmental machinery to the changing circumstances, its functioning becomes smooth and efficiency is effected.
(c) Reservoir of Experience:
As the ‘O and M’ units function as centres of management research, experience is accumulated. This wealth of experience proves conducive to offices and institutions with regard to problems pertaining to organization and methods. Moreover, it proves useful for devising plans for new organisation undertaking fresh activities.
Essay # 8. Disadvantages of Organisation and Method:
O and M though is of immense use yet it is not safe from the perennial shafts of the critics.
Following are its disadvantages:
(a) O and M becomes a Fault Finder:
It is contended that the system degenerates into a sort of internal policing. If the O and M experts behave as critics and fault finders, instead of acting as staff agencies to the line agency, the very purpose of the organisation stands defeated. The O and M officers are not the inspectors. Theirs is a very tactful role. If they fail to play it well, they are apt to invite ridicule.
They have to find out flaws in the organisation but not as inspectors or policemen. They are supposed to win the confidence of the head of the department and with his help and assistance, elicit the co-operation of all officers and employees in the organisation. If they fail to do so, they will not be able to function effectively as the organisation concerned will develop a sort of resistance complex.
(b) Usurpers of Line Functions:
The O and M out step their role of advisers. They encroach upon the powers of administrators and managers. Instead of winning confidence of the head of the department, they pose as his potential rival. They try to impose an idea upon operational heads. They fail to convince the operational head regarding the justifiability of their viewpoint.
(c) Aura of Technicality not Avoided:
The O and M men do not avoid aura of technicality. The more technical their work becomes, the farther they drift from the operational heads. The farther they go away from the management and supervision, the less useful they remain in actual practice.
If the O and M successfully avoids these pitfalls it can prove an asset for administration. It brings in tune the administrative machinery to its changing needs and requirements and is instrumental in maintaining and improving administrative machinery.
Essay # 9. Qualities of Organisation and Method:
(a) He should keep in in the necessity for the correct approach desirable in any officer, but essential for O and man.
(b) He must carefully claim that his suggestion will effect financial financial savings.
(c) He should not equate staff exactly. He must study the varying capabilities and oddities of people dispassionately.
(d) He should consider administration as means to an end and not an end in itself. Department differ. So does their mode of work. If the department in general is efficient, such an atmosphere would be respected and preserved.
Essay # 10. Location of Organisation and Method Agency:
Since the O and M performs important functions and comes into contact with different departments, therefore, the ruling consideration is that it should be located in some ministry or other organisation which can command ready influence and respect with the various departments and offices.
Consistently with this requirement, there are three kinds of alternative arrangements adopted by various countries. In the USA and UK it is located in the Bureau of the Budget and Treasury respectively. The prevailing view is that Finance Department is something of a super-department and exercises considerable influence and control over other departments.
The second alternative is to place the O and M activity and connected research under the Public Service Commission or similar other agency. This is the case in Canada and Australia. The third variant is to place the O and M work in a high administrative or staff agency close to the chief executive.
Thus in India, the O and M division earlier located in the Cabinet Secretariat is now a part of the Department of Personnel, Training and Administrative Reforms.
Essay # 11. Staffing of Organisation and Method Units:
The staffing problem involves two questions what should be the qualification of the O and M personnel and secondly, wherefrom they should be drafted to service. The qualities an O and M officer should possess are different from the qualities of any other executive officer or man in the line agency.
Anybody cannot be a good O and M man. He has to win confidence and enthusiastic cooperation from all ranks. He is not a fault-finder. He should be temperamentally capable of dealing with people in the organisation. He should be a man of initiative and good judgment.
He should be capable to direct and coordinate the efforts of O and M taskforces, working groups, committees etc. In short, he must be a person with more than average intelligence, imagination and ability.
In view of the importance of personal qualities of O and M officer, the educational and age qualification are not of much significance for selecting people for this work. Knowledge of the governmental organization and office work seems to be more important. However, the recruit is to learn the O and M work after joining the O and M unit. This training in O and M work is more important than educational qualifications.
The staffing pattern of O and M personnel differs from country to century. In the U.S.A. three different patterns are followed:
(i) Transfer of full-time personnel from the operating agency,
(ii) Recruitment of experienced personnel from outside the agency, and
(iii) Temporary detail of personnel from the operating elements.
In Great Britain staff for a departmental O and M branch is normally found from within by transfer from ordinary department work. The central O and M division draws its staff from other Departments but partly from within the Civil Service Department itself In Sweden, the O and M personnel is drawn from among the experts serving elsewhere.
They are economists, senior civil servants, military officers or big executives of private sector. Canada first tried the experiment of recruiting O and M personnel through a competitive examination, but later adopted the U.S. practice.
In India, the Central O and M division is manned by personnel drawn from the civil service—the Central Secretariat Services and the Central Field Services. Some persons belonging to the I.A.S. have also been taken into the Staff Inspection Unit.
The O and M cells in the individual ministries are under the charge of an officer generally of the rank of the Deputy Secretary designated as O and M officer. This officer looks after the O and M in addition to his other responsibilities. Thus O and M work is a part-time job at the level of the ministries.
It is recognized that training is the principal means of preparing suitable O and M personnel. In India, the Ministry of Personnel, Training and Administrative Reforms is responsible to organize training programmes in O and M and allied techniques of administrative improvement.