Here is an essay on the ‘Decentralisation of Power’ for class 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on the ‘Decentralisation of Power’ for school and college students.
Essay on Decentralisation of Power
- Essay on the Genesis of Decentralisation of Power
- Essay on the Reasons for Decentralisation of Powers
- Essay on the Different Forms of Decentralisation
- Essay on the Advantages and Disadvantages of Decentralization
Essay # 1. Genesis of Decentralisation of Power:
Decentralisation of power is antithesis of centralisation of power. It is based on whether all powers in the government should be concentrated on a single body or it should be distributed among other subordinate bodies. Those who believe in the latter support the dispersal of power and authority among the lower subordinate units. Conversely, the backers of the dogma of centralisation think that all powers from the top to the bottom should vest exclusively in one authority.
Decentralisation must not be confused with delegation of powers. In the case of delegation of power, the central authority transfers some power to the lower bodies but retains the right to take back those powers any time.
But in the case of decentralisation, the powers are given and distributed by the constitution and cannot be abdicated or revoked. In the case of decentralisation the units exercising the powers do so as autonomous units, whereas in the case of delegation, the units work on behalf of the central authority.
In a modern state centralisation of power is the exception. Decentralisation is the rule. There are some areas in governmental organisation where centralisation is called for. In the same way, decentralisation ensures efficiency in many other fields. In England and France the central authority is tempered with decentralisation. In practice, in England there is legislative centralisation with administrative decentralisation.
The picture of France is just the opposite. There administrative centralisation is blended with legislative decentralisation. In India the need for an effective defence of the country and policy implementation of the government through planned economy and eradication of poverty has led to a unified solid machinery.
But a vast country like India cannot be effectively ruled from New Delhi. Democracy will be a far cry if the people are not involved in the government and administration of the nation. For that matter India provides for state government in every state. To bring the mass of people within the mainstream of the nation, the Panchyati Raj is there which is the final step of the decentralisation of power. This brings democracy to the grass root level.
Essay # 2. Reasons for Decentralisation of Powers:
Harold J. Laski is the key supporter of decentralisation of powers. In support of decentralisation, Laski gives the following reasons. The first line of argument in favour of decentralisation is that, if the power of policy and aims of the government is confined to a handful elite, the common people will turn their mind away from the government.
Democracy means popular participation in the government and so centralisation of power must be a negation of democracy. In a decentralised system the people will participate in the power sharing process. As a result, in a decentralised process the people will take more interest.
In the second place, decentralisation gives rise to a climate of innovation by supplying experimentation in different fields of governmental functions. In a rigid system of centralisation there is absence of variety and novelty. Thus decentralisation will ensure steady progress of the nation.
In the third place, the modern government has wide-ranging functions, both domestic and international, which makes it difficult to mind all businesses of the country single-handedly. Since the government has neither the time nor the competency to look after all the minutest details from a central place regional issues can be better looked into by the regional authorities.
Thus a mechanism of decentralisation is the best answer to the problems of a modern state. We may conclude with the observation of Harold J. Laski: “The scale of the modern state requires a large measure of decentralisation if it is to do its work in a creative way.”
Essay # 3. Different Forms of Decentralisation:
There are two kinds of decentralisation, namely political and administrative. In political decentralisation new units are created to invest them with powers. Thus the central government in India is the main organ of power. As many as twenty-five states are there and some more may be created to decentralise the power.
Administrative decentralisation goes on two lines, namely geographical and functional. The geographical nature of administrative decentralisation is like the Panchayati Raj. As for the functional nature of administrative decentralisation, we can give the example of the specialised bodies like the universities, medical councils and institutions of like nature. The central government has no time or skill to administer the universities or medical councils and these are allowed to run their own affairs.
Essay # 4. Advantages and Disadvantages of Decentralization:
Like all systems of political science, decentralisation of power has both merits and demerits.
Advantages of Decentralization:
If there is only one body cast with all sorts of functions, it is bound to be a burden for that body. So if there is a subordinate unit to share the power, the central body will be relieved of much of its burden. This being so, the central body, shorn of such burden, will be in a better position to mind its own business.
In the second place, centralisation is usually plagued with such irregularities as delay, inefficiency and red-tapeism. This is natural when the paraphernalia is large and enormous. Decentralisation is the answer to such problems.
In the third place, the decentralised bodies would be in a better position to know the problems of the locality and thus will be able to meet those problems quickly and efficiently. In such a system the local resources are bound to develop with local incentive.
Disadvantages of Decentralisation:
The first defect of decentralisation is that a government must not be two or many. It must be one, because only identical government can carry out identical policy and programme. When two persons are the spokesmen of a theory, it is very often distorted by the second person. This will be a bad day for the government
The second flaw of decentralisation is that, in the absence of consistency in the function and programme of the government, the defence, planning and coinage of the government may be duplicated. This will topsy-turvy the entire government and Create chaos and even anarchy, which is not desirable in any state.
The third drawback of decentralisation is that decentralisation will result in a secondary government which will weaken the nation. Separate government will incur huge expenditure which a poor country may not be able to afford.
Decentralisation is the order of the day. No modern state can remain centralised. It is common knowledge that there cannot be decentralisation in some matters like defence, foreign policy, coinage and similar major issues. But law and order, municipal administration are those functions which can be better decentralised. Today’s slogan of democracy is government to the grass root level.