1. Private Laws:
Private laws determine the relation of citizens to one another. They regulate the relations among individuals. “In Private Law”, says Holland, “the parties concerned are private individuals above and between whom stands the state as an impartial arbiter.”
2. Public Laws:
Public laws are the laws that determine the relation of citizens to the state. Distinguishing Public Law from Private Law Holland says, “In public law also the state is present as an arbiter, although it is at the same time one of the parties interested.
3. Constitutional Laws:
Constitutional Laws are all those “rules which t directly or indirectly affect the distribution or the exercise of power in the state”, and which are “enforced by the courts”. Constitutional Laws are the basic laws according to which the government in a state conducts itself.
In short, the laws that define, interpret and regulate the functions of the government are known as constitutional laws. The laws which are not related to the forms and functions of the government and to the fundamental rights but are related to the social and economic affairs of all citizens are known as ordinary laws. For example, the election of the President, the powers and functions of the Supreme Court and method of the appointment of the Governors are the constitutional affairs but the abolition of child-marriage, prohibition of wine, Hindi Code Bill, etc., come under the command of ordinary laws.
4. Statute Laws:
The laws which are framed by the Legislative Assembly or by the Parliament are known as Statute Laws. These days Democratic Government is popular in most of the countries and most of the laws are framed there by the Parliaments in those countries.
Ordinances are the orders issued by the executive branch of the government within the powers prescribed to them by the law of the state. In simple words, the President issues the orders, in the absence of Parliament, in order to face the emergency. As a rule ordinances are not permanent. They are issued for ne special purpose of facing emergency.
6. Common Laws:
Common laws are those laws which rest on customs but are enforced by the law courts like statute law. Common laws are quite popular in England.
7. Administrative Laws:
According to Dicey, administrative laws interpret the office and responsibilities of government servants. Administrative laws enable the public officers to separate law and procedure from private individuals. These laws also attempt to interpret the privileges of government officials.
These laws are not popular in England, U.S.A. and India. They are popular in France and a few other countries of Europe. If there arises a dispute between a citizen and a government-servant, the citizen goes to the Administrative Courts.
The Administrative Court resolves the dispute with the help of administrative laws. Such Administrative Courts are not popular in India, England and U.S.A. Here all the cases are filed in the ordinary courts.
8. International Laws:
International laws are rules which determine the conduct of the general body of civilized states in their dealing with each other. International laws stand for the body of the rules which regulates the relations between states. These laws are not framed by any sovereign law-making authority nor is there any sovereign authority to enforce these laws.
But these laws are backed by International Public Opinion. These laws are meant for regulating the conduct of various states in the world. They have the force only to the extent to which they are recognised and accepted by the different states of the world.
For example, it is a universally accepted international law that the plane of no foreign country can fly over the territory of any country without seeking its permission. This international law is universally accepted by all the countries of the world.