1. Application of technology and mechanisation:
This means in other words that the people give up their old ways of living, old methods of agriculture and travelling. Previously, the majority of the people in India used to live in villages in old ways in Kuccha houses and they used to cultivate their lands through ploughs and travel by means of bullock-carts.
Now this has been given up entirely as the people now live in well-built houses, cultivate their fields through tractors and use other modern methods of agriculture (chemical fertilizers or manure, good seeds, irrigation system and harvesting through machines).
Now the ordinary people prefer to travel by means of buses and trains but the more affluent section of the society i.e. the rich people prefer to travel by super-fast trains and aeroplanes. This means in other words that the people are using modern methods of technology and mechanisation.
Previously the people used to spin cloths through spindles and live in traditional ways and use their old patterns of occupation and places of residence. When the industrialisation of a country takes places, the people give up their traditional rural and agricultural economy. Its place is taken over by industrialisation. New factories and mills continue to grow daily and use latest techniques.
When the industrialisation of a country takes place, then the new centres of industries develop. Consequently, the people of villages particularly the labourers migrate in large number to these new centres in the cities with the hope that they will return to their villages after making enough money but well their livelihood in the villages and agriculture cannot bear so much-burden.
Moreover, it is very inconvenient to them to come and go daily from the villages to the cities as there is much rush in buses and trains and the traveling is very costly. So with the growing industrialisation of the country, the people in large number continue to migrate from the villages to cities and settle permanently there. This in return causes many problems in the cities, housing, and sanitation, improving methods of communication and acquiring more and more lands for manifold purposes.
4. Rise in national and per capital Income:
The agricultural economy alone cannot increase the national wealth and per capita income as it has to support the idle members of the society also. Therefore in order to raise the national and per capita income, the old economy based on agriculture has to be supplemented by industrial growth and its income because by exporting the industrial goods the country can make huge profits.
5. Increase in Literacy:
Another prominent feature of modernisation is that all-out efforts are made by the Government and the society to wipe out illiteracy and strenuous efforts are made not only to send every child to school but the adults is also persuaded to learn three R’s.
This education does not remain limited only to arts, science and commerce but also spreads to higher medical education, research, technology and crafts. Thus the avenues of higher education are made available to every person in all fields. So everybody runs after attaining higher education.
6. Political participation:
When the best possible opportunities are offered to every person to attain higher education, the people become enlightened. Economic development and equal distribution of wealth enables everybody to share sometime from the pressing necessity of daily wants and devote it in political participation.
Every voter begins to read newspaper and learn something about politics. The voter ultimately becomes enlightened and votes for that party which is likely to solve economic problems and take the country to further heights unattained so far.
Therefore the political participation is made possible in a democracy through political parties, interest groups, and various other organisations. They influence the government for the welfare of citizens and equal opportunities are made available in services to everybody irrespective of caste, colour, creed, religion, sex or such other considerations.
7. Development of Mass-Media techniques:
The modernisation brings in its wake development of mass-media techniques. These mass-media techniques include newspapers, broadcasting, postal facilities, movies, road, rail and air services, electricity, and T.V. Through all these facilities, the citizens become enlightened and well-informed and these in turn enable the citizens to serve the state in a better way.
8. Social Mobility:
When the modernisation of a country begins to take place, then the people go on migrating from the villages to cities in search of better amenities and jobs. The role of village Sarpanch becomes insignificant and is replaced in the cities by the role of the leaders of various political parties and the Unions. As the people become conscious, so they rally round that leader, who is likely to deliver them goods.
9. Cultivation of national identity:
When the modernisation of any country takes place, then the people begin to give up their narrow loyalties and parochial ‘Considerations of caste, colour, sex or creed. Their interests become identified with ‘he interests of the nation.
Modernisation does not necessarily mean discarding all traditional values and cultural or political heritage:
Modernisation does not necessarily mean that the people may discard all their traditional values or cultural and political heritage. For example, the British are traditionally conservative but still they have retained their old institutions like kingship and House of Lords.
Though their powers hive been sufficiently curtailed, yet they have been made useful institutions which could serve the growing needs of the society. Therefore the British are considered as one of the most modern nations. Similar is the case with the Japanese, the French and the Germans.
We, in India are also doing the same. Without losing our cultural or political heritage, we are adopting latest technology and modern scientific techniques. Thus, we are marching towards modernisation with a great speed.