Liberty can be defended in the following ways:
(1) Establishment of Democracy:
Liberty and Democracy go together. Liberty is safer and more secure in Democracy than in any other form of government. Democratic government is the government of the people whereas in other forms of government (like Absolute Monarchy and Dictatorship) all powers are centered and centralized into the hands of one person or a group of persons.
The person in power or a group of persons in power cannot tolerate his or their criticism. It is the quality of Democracy that opposite parties are given due respect in Democracy. It is the opposite parties that form the government after the failure of the ruling party. Criticism of the government is welcomed in Democracy.
It is only the constitution that confines the authority of the state. It lays down certain barriers and these barriers are not to be crossed by the state while using its authority.
(3) Fundamental Rights:
Fundamental rights are assured to us by the government. They protect our liberty to a very great extent. It is these fundamental rights that also confine the authority of the state. In the existence of fundamental rights the state cannot interfere in the matters of personal life. In the absence of fundamental rights liberty of the individual is never out of danger and in the absence of liberty development of human personality is not possible.
(4) Independent Judiciary:
For the safeguard of liberty it is necessary that Judiciary should be independent. It should be free from the control of the Executive. If Judiciary is subordinate to the Executive or if it is not free from the influence of the Executive, it will not be able to impart justice nor will it be able to protect the fundamental rights of man.
In the communist countries or in the countries which have Dictatorship, fundamental rights are given to the people, but Judiciary is not free from the influence of the Executive. In such countries, the safeguard and security of fundamental rights, constitution and liberty is not quite possible.
(5) Decentralisation of Powers:
Centralization of powers gives rise to monarchy. Therefore decentralization of power is required for the safeguard of liberty. Powers should be divided into central, provincial and local self-governments. This decentralization of powers leads to efficient administration. And people also start co-operating with the functioning of the government.
(6) Economic Security:
“Where there are rich and poor”, says Laski, “Educated and uneducated, we always find a relation of master and servant”. Economic security is a condition to liberty. For the safeguard of liberty it is essential that people should have economic security.
This is possible only in the absence of economic disparity, inflation and unemployment. People should have superior standard of living and have equal opportunities for making their progress. This is possible only in socialism and not in capitalism.
(7) Rule of Law:
For the safeguard of liberty, the application of the rule of law is necessary. Rule of law is established in England, U.S.A. and India. Rule of law means that there should not be any distinction of caste and creed, colour and race. In the eyes of law all are equal and all are liable to be punished if they commit crime. No privileges will be given to a person belonging to a particular class nor will there be any provision for immunity. No person will be punished or kept in custody for a long time until and unless his crime is proved.
(8) Political Education and Eternal Vigilance:
Permanent safeguard of liberty is possible only when people are politically educated and are acutely aware of their rights and duties. Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty and in its absence one can act according to his will. Laski has very aptly remarked, ‘It is the proud spirit of the citizens, less than the letter of the law that is the most real safeguard”.
Whenever the government crosses the barrier of its authority and interferes in the personal life of the people, people rise in revolt against the government. Jefferson’s comment is worth-noting in this regard: “What country can preserve its liberties, if its rulers are not warned from time to time that the people preserve the spirit of resistance”.