(1) Human Nature:
According to Dr. Ashirwatham, imperialism in its Primitive form was the result of the hunting and looting tendency of human beings. In primitive age when a tribe went in search of a meadow, the other tribe used to capture that meadow by force. Powerful kings used to annex the states of weaker kings by force.
(2) Desire for conquests and power:
In ancient, middle and modem times there have been the tendency among the rulers to establish a vast empire. That is why vast empires rose and fell in ancient times in Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, India, Rome, Greece and China.
During middle Ages, the Turks and the Mughals and in modern age the English, French, the Russians, the Japanese, the Dutch, the Portuguese, the Germans and the Spanish people established vast empires. Prof. Schuman has rightly said that the rise of new imperialism was the result of the desire to capture power and to achieve victory.
(3) Place for additional population:
The population of Italy, Japan and Germany is more as compared to their areas. For this reason, the rulers of these countries have been searching for new colonies to settle their additional population and to provide the people with the means of livelihood before the First World War.
(4) Aggressive Nationalism:
The simple result of aggressive nationalism is imperialism. Hitler, Mussolini and the Japanese Prime Minister Tojo invaded other countries before the Second World War in order to enhance the prestige of their countries.
(5) Economic Necessities:
Economic needs also play an important role in the rise of modern imperialism. After industrial revolution capitalism gained power. The capitalists needed markets (colonies) for the procurement of raw material and to sell their finished goods. Therefore, the British, the Germans, the Italians and the French started establishing new colonies in Africa and Asia.
(6) Propaganda of Religion:
The imperialists have been of the view that their religion is the best. Therefore, they have been sending their missionaries to backward countries in order to propagate their religion and to make them civilized. In this way in the guise of religion, after establishing their area of influence, they used to establish their rule by aggression.
(7) Diplomatic and strategic reasons:
Many imperialist countries want to establish their empire because it helps them to gain influence in the diplomatic field. Sometimes certain nations are in need of places of strategic importance in other countries, and they establish their control over them.
For example, from strategic point of view, China needed Aksai Chin. Therefore, she took away this area from India by force. In the past the British had a control over Gibralter, Aden, Malta and Cyprus because from strategic point of view, these areas were very important.