The first and foremost agency that brought about modernisation is colonialism. Whatever be the motives of the colonialists, they built a network of roads, railways, telegraphs and telephonic services, banking system, processing plants and the like.
First of all they did ‘these things in order to strengthen their hold on the countries which they had conquered by means of brute force. They established processing plants in order to use the raw material of the dependent countries for their motherland.
The swift means, of communication which the colonialists established in their own interest were also used by the nationalists in order to establish contorts among them-selves and forge unity. Thus the colonialism helped each dependent country towards modernisation in its initial stages. When the country becomes free, then the tasks of modernisation are taken up by the national leaders.
The second most important part played in the modernisation of the country are the elites of the country. The colonialists establish schools and colleges in order to impart education in their language and literature, so that the people of a colonial country may give up their own cultural heritage and ignore their own history and literature but the students trained in those schools and colleges go up for higher training to the ruling country.
They come into contact there with the democratic institutions and men of modern outlook. When they return home, they are pained to see the plight of their own countrymen. Therefore they press for reforms and start national agitations, when their demands are not conceded.
We are well familiar with the role of Shri Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Mahatma Gandhi, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and many others who first of all went to England to get higher education and then took a leading part in the national movement.
3. Revolutionary Leaders:
It has been observed that in certain backward countries military leaders capture power by means of force and then adopt the pat of modernisation in order to stabilise their regimes. We are familiar with the history of Turkey, Pakistan, Bangla Desh, Burma, Nigeria, Algeria, Sudan and many Latin American countries.
In those countries, the military coups occurred and the topmost Generals captured power and then they started the process of modernisation. For example, Kamal Ataturk modernised Turkey Ayub Khan and Zia-ul-Haq started the same process in their own country.
In Bangladesh, though there was strong opposition to the autocratic rule of General Ershad, yet he was modernising the country in his own interest. In 1998 Wazid Hassina, daughter of Shickh Mujibur Rahman was ruling. In Iran, Ataullah Khomeini arte capturing power did the same thing.
4. Political Parties:
The political parties in a democracy play a prominent role in the modernisation of the country. They develop a spirit of patriotism and secular outlook among the masses. The Indian National Congress acquired power in 1947 and after that it has launched the country on a path of progress.
A huge network of schools, colleges, roads, railways, bridges, telephones, steel plants and industries in public sector has been spread. Huge dams have been constructed in every State to provide facilities of irrigation and generate electricity. No efforts hits been spared to improve agriculture and modernise it.
When in any country civil government becomes unable to control the public unrest and the conditions of civil war take place, then the military intervenes and assumes the reigns of the government. The military authorities curb the disintegrating tendencies with a strong hand and launch the country on a path of progress. Thus the military modernizes the country. This has happened in Turkey, Egypt, Burma, Pakistan and a host of other countries.
The party-in-power in a democracy is always most anxious to modernise the country in order to prolong its rule. The ruling party has to implement all its development programmes through bureaucracy. Therefore bureaucracy plays a significant role in modernising the country. When these bureaucrats retire, they take with them a progressive outlook which they spread amongst the masses.