1. Development of Science and Technology:
There cannot be two opinions in this respect that the development of science and technology play a major role m the process of modernisation. Due to this factor a mad race is going in various countries of the world for development of science and technology.
If some latest development takes place in the field of science and technology in nuclear or space field just like Star Wars, then it becomes a prestigious question for the U.S.S.K- also. China first of all was not recognised by U.S.A. as a great power but when China developed nuclear device, then Mr. Nixon, President of U.S.A. went himself to seek the hand of friendship of China.
India also exploded her first nuclear device on the 18 May, 1974 at Pokhran in Rajasthan m order to prove to the world that she does not lag behind the other countries in this respect. Thus India entered as six in member of nuclear club.
In the field of technology, China has caught up with U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. She has developed intermediate range ballistic missiles. In the air, she has now developed inter-continental ballistic missiles capable of delivery at longer distance. India is also going ahead with its research programme in space with a greater speed.
India shot her first satellite in space known as Arya Bhatta. Then it threw into space Apple. After that it sent into space Insat-A and Insat-B. These satellites have helped India a lot in gathering information especially about coming rains and gathering storms in the sea.
India is still making progress by leaps and bounds in the field of technology by using computers, but at the same time we cannot overlook this factor that while plenty of labour is available in our country, there is a scarcity of capital. Therefore the technology has to be different in India.
As Mahatma Gandhi once put it, what is needed in developing societies is production by the masses rather than mass production, for which it may be more necessary to develop what has been variously called “intermediate technology”, “self-help technology” or “appropriate technology “a technology which is appropriate to the requirement of the developing countries. Therefore the economy may be provided to the labourers and the educated youths.
2. Development of Industrial Civilisation:
It is most important to industrialise a backward country in order to lead it on the path of modernisation. That is the reason Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first, Prime Minister of India established many steel plants in the public sector. He started a factory for making railway coaches at Perambur (Tamil Nadu).
He started Chittaranjan Locomotive Works. He established Bhopal Heavy Electricals. He built many dams in order to” provide more facilities for irrigation and generate electricity. Like U.S.S.R., India has also launched many Five Year Plans in order to accelerate the growth of economy.
Therefore whatever political system may prevail in any country, it cannot afford to ignore the industrial development because it brings economic prosperity in the country. Consequently, we see that England, France, West Germany, Japan, U.S.S.R. and China are highly industrialised countries.
3. Successful Working of Democratic Institutions:
Democracy is regarded one of the best means to modernise a country. England, France, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Belgium, West Germany, U.S.A., Japan and India have modernised themselves in this way. The Westerners believe in this institution thoroughly and they regard it as the key to modernisation but the communists regard this political democracy as the rule of few bourgeoisie and though there is dictatorship of the Communist Party in U.S.S.R., East European countries, (Finland, Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and East Germany), China, Vietnam, North Korea etc., yet they consider it a socialist democracy.
Dictatorship of the Communist Party in these countries has in turn become a dictatorship of the politbureau or General Secretary in these countries. It is altogether a different thing whether we may agree with this political system or the other political system but it is true that these communist countries have also modernised themselves to a great extent and compare favourably with the industrialised countries of the West.
So far India is concerned, it has adopted democratic system and through its Five Year Plans, it has made rapid strides in economic development and marching ahead with a terrific speed towards modernisation but in spite of that about 40% people live below poverty line. This situation must be remedied by means of equal distribution of wealth.