(1) Reconciliation of local autonomy with national unity:
The main advantage of a federal government is that in a country where there are many diversities and the establishment of a unitary government is not possible, a political organisation can be established through this form of Government. In this type of government, local self-government, regional autonomy and national unity are possible.
Moreover, in this type of government some rights are given to the central government and the rest to the states or the provinces. In this way cultural and administrative autonomy is given to different nationalities and regions and matters like Defence, Foreign Affairs, Communication, etc., are given to the centre.
(2) Division of powers between the Centre and States leads to administrative efficiency:
With the division of powers, the burden of work on the centre is lessened and the centre has not to bother about the problems of a purely local nature. It can devote its full attention to the problems of national importance. Because of provincial or regional autonomy, the administration of these areas becomes very efficient.
(3) People take more interest in local and regional affairs:
In a federal government the provinces, regions or the states enjoy separate rights and they have separate cabinets and legislatures. Local governments have also separate rights and the councils elected by the people run the local administration. When elections to the provincial legislatures and local bodies take place, and when the representatives of the people run the local and provincial administration, people take keen interest in the administration.
(4) It gives rise to big states:
Fifty states of America could not have become so powerful if they had not joined the American Federation. They could also not have enjoyed that prestige in international field, which they enjoy now as a strong nation.
Similarly several Indian princely states could not get any importance in the international field, if they had not joined the Indian Union. They occupy a position of prestige in the international field only because of their partnership in the Indian Union. This is also applicable to the Soviet Union, Brazil, Australia and West Germany.
(5) This system is more advantageous to the smaller states:
This system is more advantageous to smaller states, because they cannot defend themselves independently and establish diplomatic relations with other countries, which entails a lot of expenditure. The expenditure that they incur on their defence is also reduced, if they join together. Fifty states of America could not defend themselves individually. Similar is the case with India and other countries.
States or provinces in India could neither defend themselves against expansionist China and aggressor Pakistan, nor could they establish their political and cultural relations with other countries of the world, in their individual capacity, as every state had lacked ample economic resources to meet all the expenses.
(6) Citizenship of Federal Government is more dignified than that of its units:
The citizenship of a federation is more dignified. If we declare ourselves as citizens of Assam, Bengal or the Punjab in foreign countries, it will not be as dignified as is in declaring ourselves the citizens of India. Similarly, the citizenship of New York or Texas is not as dignified as that of the United States of America.
(7) Distribution of powers checks the despotism of the Central Government:
Division of powers between the states and the centre checks despotism, because the centralization of powers lead to dictatorship. This is the position in India, West Germany, Austria, the United States of America, Australia, Brazil and Canada.
(8) More suitable for the bigger countries:
In countries where there are diversities of culture, religion, language and race and which have a large size, unitary government is not suitable. In such countries only federal government is possible, because this system brings unity in diversity; the separate authority of the provinces is recognised and they are made autonomous. If unitary government is established in countries like India and the United States of America, all powers will be concentrated in the central government and there will be a possibility of its becoming despotic.
(9) It is a model for the world state:
The world-known politicians are of the belief that world’s government is the only solution to the problem of world peace. The structure of the world state cannot be unitary; it can only be federal.
(10) It is good for economic and cultural progress:
Federal government is not only useful from the defence point of view, but it is also good for economic and cultural progress. In a federation the centre looks after many common subjects, and the states have not to incur expenditure on them. With the establishment of federation, inter-state commerce and industry are encouraged. The regular supply of necessities is ensured in scarcity areas without much expenditure.
The economic sources of the country are increased in a federation and the country can face droughts, famines and other natural calamities without much difficulty. The country can formulate a sound economic policy; it can build big dams and establish industries for its prosperity.
For economic prosperity many plans have been executed in India. In big countries, there are diverse nationalities, races, religions and cultures and federal government gives them special facilities and safeguards, which help them in making a rapid progress.
Administrative and cultural autonomy has been given to different nationalities in the Soviet Union. For the uplift of Harijans and tribal people and the protection of linguistic and religious minorities, special step have been taken in India.